Receptors for protons or lipid messengers or both?

J Recept Signal Transduct Res. 2006;26(5-6):599-610. doi: 10.1080/10799890600932220.


The subfamily of G protein-coupled receptors comprising GPR4, OGR1, TDAG8, and G2A was originally characterized as a group of proteins mediating biological responses to the lipid messengers sphingosylphosphorylcholine (SPC), lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), and psychosine. We challenged this view by reporting that OGR1 and GPR4 sense acidic pH and that this process is not affected by concentrations of SPC or LPC previously reported as agonistic. The original publications describing GPR4, OGR1, and G2A as receptors for LPC or SPC have now been retracted, and the first studies exploring receptors of this family as pH sensors in physiology have appeared. Here we review the status of this field and we confirm that GPR4, OGR1, and TDAG8 should be considered as proton-sensing receptors. Negative regulation of these receptors by high micromolar concentrations of lipids appears not specific in our experiments.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Humans
  • Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
  • Lipids*
  • Protons*
  • Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled / physiology*
  • Second Messenger Systems*


  • GPR4 protein, human
  • GPR65 protein, human
  • GPR68 protein, human
  • Lipids
  • Protons
  • Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled