Nuclear receptors CAR and PXR in the regulation of hepatic metabolism

Xenobiotica. 2006 Oct-Nov;36(10-11):1152-63. doi: 10.1080/00498250600861827.


The nuclear receptors CAR and PXR were first characterized as xenosensing transcription factors regulating the induction of phase I and II xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes as well as transporters in response to exogenous stimuli. It has now become clear, however, that these receptors cross-talk with endogenous stimuli as well, which extends their regulation to various physiological processes such as energy metabolism and cell growth. As recognition of the function of these receptors has widened, the molecular mechanism of their regulation has evolved from simple protein-DNA binding to regulation by complex protein-protein interactions. Novel mechanisms as to how xenobiotic exposure alters hepatic metabolic pathways such as gluconeogenesis and beta-oxidation have emerged. At the same time, the molecular mechanism of how endogenous stimuli, such as insulin, regulate xenobiotc metabolism via CAR and PXR have also become evident.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cell Growth Processes
  • Coxsackie and Adenovirus Receptor-Like Membrane Protein
  • Endocrine System / physiology
  • Energy Metabolism
  • Homeostasis
  • Humans
  • Inactivation, Metabolic
  • Liver / metabolism*
  • Pregnane X Receptor
  • Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear / metabolism*
  • Receptors, Steroid / metabolism*
  • Receptors, Virus / metabolism*
  • Signal Transduction


  • CLMP protein, human
  • Coxsackie and Adenovirus Receptor-Like Membrane Protein
  • Pregnane X Receptor
  • Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear
  • Receptors, Steroid
  • Receptors, Virus