The nuclear receptors CAR and PXR were first characterized as xenosensing transcription factors regulating the induction of phase I and II xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes as well as transporters in response to exogenous stimuli. It has now become clear, however, that these receptors cross-talk with endogenous stimuli as well, which extends their regulation to various physiological processes such as energy metabolism and cell growth. As recognition of the function of these receptors has widened, the molecular mechanism of their regulation has evolved from simple protein-DNA binding to regulation by complex protein-protein interactions. Novel mechanisms as to how xenobiotic exposure alters hepatic metabolic pathways such as gluconeogenesis and beta-oxidation have emerged. At the same time, the molecular mechanism of how endogenous stimuli, such as insulin, regulate xenobiotc metabolism via CAR and PXR have also become evident.