Indolocarbazole natural products: occurrence, biosynthesis, and biological activity

Nat Prod Rep. 2006 Dec;23(6):1007-45. doi: 10.1039/b601930g. Epub 2006 Oct 19.


The indolocarbazole family of natural products, including the biosynthetically related bisindolylmaleimides, is reviewed (with 316 references cited). The isolation of indolocarbazoles from natural sources and the biosynthesis of this class of compounds are thoroughly reviewed, including recent developments in molecular genetics, enzymology and metabolic engineering. The biological activities and underlying modes of action displayed by natural and synthetic indolocarbazoles is also presented, with an emphasis on the development of analogs that have entered clinical trials for its future use against cancer or other diseases.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Biological Products* / biosynthesis
  • Biological Products* / chemistry
  • Biological Products* / isolation & purification
  • Biological Products* / pharmacology
  • Carbazoles* / chemistry
  • Carbazoles* / isolation & purification
  • Carbazoles* / pharmacology
  • Indoles* / chemistry
  • Indoles* / isolation & purification
  • Indoles* / pharmacology
  • Molecular Biology
  • Molecular Structure


  • Biological Products
  • Carbazoles
  • Indoles