We sought to describe rates of kidney function decline and to identify modifiable risk factors for CKD progression in a multicenter prospective cohort study of adolescents with CKD aged 11 to 18 years seen semiannually for up to three years. Of the 23 subjects meeting inclusion criteria, the average estimated GFR was 51 +/- 27 ml/min/1.73 m(2) (0.85 +/- 0.45 ml/s/1.73 m(2)) at entry. The overall annualized decline in GFR was 5.6 ml/min/1.73 m(2) (0.093 ml/s/1.73 m(2)) per year (95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.9 to 9.3 [0.032 to 0.16]). The adjusted annualized decline in GFR was found to be accelerated in males, as well as among those over 15 years of age. The adjusted annualized decline in GFR was greater among those with either anemia (hematocrit below 36%), or hypoalbuminemia (albumin below 4 g/dl [40 g/L]). After adjustment, anemia was associated with an accelerated decline of 7.8 ml/min/1.73 m(2) (0.13 ml/s/1.73 m(2)) (95% CI: 3.3 to 12 [0.055 to 0.20]) and hypoalbuminemia was associated with an accelerated decline of 17 ml/min/1.73 m(2) (0.28 ml/s/1.73 m(2)) (95% CI: 11 to 22 [0.18 to 0.37]). Further study is needed to evaluate whether treatment of anemia or hypoalbuminemia, as outlined in current clinical care guidelines for CKD, may slow the progression of CKD in adolescents.