Comparative Mechanisms of Branching Morphogenesis in Diverse Systems

J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia. 2006 Oct;11(3-4):213-28. doi: 10.1007/s10911-006-9027-z.


Much progress has been made in recent years toward understanding mechanisms controlling branching morphogenesis, a fundamental aspect of development in a variety of invertebrate and vertebrate organs. To gain a deeper understanding of how branching morphogenesis occurs in the mammary gland, we compare and contrast the cellular and molecular events underlying this process in both invertebrate and vertebrate organs. Thus, in this review, we focus on the common themes that have emerged from such comparative analyses and discuss how they are implemented via a battery of signaling pathways to ensure proper branching morphogenesis in diverse systems.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cell Communication*
  • Epithelial Cells / cytology
  • Epithelial Cells / physiology
  • Extracellular Matrix / physiology
  • Female
  • Mammary Glands, Animal / cytology
  • Mammary Glands, Animal / embryology*
  • Mammary Glands, Animal / metabolism
  • Mesoderm / cytology
  • Mesoderm / physiology
  • Morphogenesis* / genetics
  • Signal Transduction