We have characterized and mapped the porcine fatty acid binding protein 5, epidermal (FABP5) gene. According to linkage and RH mapping, this gene is located close to the FABP4 (fatty acid binding protein 4, adipocyte) gene on swine chromosome 4. We resequenced 4.7 kb of the FABP5 gene in the parental population of an Iberian x Landrace cross (IBMAP), identifying seven SNPs arranged in two distinct FABP5 haplotypes. QTL and association analyses in the IBMAP population showed that this gene is strongly associated with fat deposition. QTL and haplotype analysis revealed that both FABP4 and FABP5 (clustered in mammals) are major candidate genes for the FAT1 QTL; the most likely position for the FAT1 QTL is between these two genes. Finally, our results suggest the presence of more than one QTL affecting fatness traits on porcine chromosome 4.