The identification of biomarkers in prostatic carcinoma has yielded important data regarding prognosis and has aided in increasing diagnostic accuracy. Additionally, this approach has yielded important insights into the biology of prostatic carcinoma. In this study, we report that the expression of the cyclooxygenase isoenzyme, COX-2, is significantly increased in prostatic carcinoma, whereas that of the cell adhesion molecule, E-cadherin, is decreased. The expression of COX-2 was positively correlated with higher tumor stage, and the presence of carcinoma in surgical margins at prostatectomy. Conversely, the expression of E-cadherin was inversely related to these prognostic indicators. Lastly, the expressions of COX-2 and E-cadherin were very strongly and inversely correlated. These results provide important insights into the biologic underpinnings of prostate carcinoma; and further studies into COX-2 expression in prostate core biopsies may show utility in preprostatectomy prognostication. Furthermore, these results may provide a rational basis for therapeutic intervention and chemoprevention with COX-2 inhibitor therapy in prostate carcinoma.