A new microsporidian Trachipleistophora extenrec n. sp. was isolated from a muscle lesion of the streaked tenrec Hemicentetes semispinosus Cuvier, 1798 (Mammalia, Tenrecidae), an insectivore endemic to Madagascar. The spores isolated from the tenrec were infectious to severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice by intramuscular injection. Material obtained from muscular lesions in mice was used for the parasite description. All developmental stages of the microsporidian were covered by a dense coat, which during sporogony changed into the sporophorous vesicle wall. Eight, 16, 32, or more spores were formed inside the sporophorous vesicle as the result of the division by plasmotomy and sequential fission of a multinucleate sporogonial plasmodium. Spores were ovoid, 4.7 x 2.8 microm in size, had a large posterior vacuole, and had an isofilar polar tube with 15-16 coils. Although the fine structure and the developmental pattern of the organism were in some respects similar to the genus Vavraia, molecular phylogeny based on the gene sequences of the small subunit rRNA and RNA polymerase subunit II indicated that the organism belongs to the genus Trachipleistophora. The diagnostic characters of the genera Trachipleistophora and Vavraia are discussed as well as the discrepancies between the phylogenies of these two microsporidian genera based on morphology and molecules.