The use of prenatal ultrasonography has resulted in increased numbers of fetuses being diagnosed with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), but the long-term prognosis is still not well-known. Between 1981 and 2006 we followed 26 consecutive children with enlarged hyperechoic kidneys detected between the 12th week of pregnancy and the first day of life (Day 1) as well as one affected parent. Three other fetuses were excluded following the termination of the pregnancy. The mother was the transmitting parent in 16 of the 26 children (ns, p=0.1). Clinical features that presented during follow-up were oligoamnios (5/26), neonatal pneumothorax (3/26), pyelonephritis (5/26), gross hematuria (2/26), hypertension (5/26), proteinuria (2/26) and chronic renal insufficiency (CRI) (2/26). At the last follow-up (mean duration of follow-up: 76 months; range: 0.5-262 months), 19 children (mean age: 5.5 years) were asymptomatic, five (mean age: 8.5 years) had hypertension, two (mean age: 9.7 years) had proteinuria and two (mean age: 19 years) had CRI. Children presenting enlarged kidneys postnatally tended to have more clinical manifestations than their counterparts who did not. Of 25 siblings of the patients, seven had renal cysts; these were detected during childhood in five siblings and in utero in two siblings. In conclusion, prognosis is favourable in most children with prenatal ADPKD, at least during childhood. The sex of the transmitting parent is not a risk factor of prenatal ADPKD. A high proportion of siblings develop early renal cysts. Abnormalities visualized by ultrasonography appear to be associated to more clinical manifestations.