We report a case of diffuse myomelanocytic tumor of the peritoneum that simulates, clinically and instrumentally, a malignant mesothelioma. The patient was a 70-year-old woman with a history of ancient hysterectomy for fibroids, who presented with abdominal discomfort. Exploratory laparotomy revealed diffuse encasing of the peritonealized organs by a thin, fleshy, gray-white tissue rind. Scattered tumor masses were present as well. A dominant lesion measuring 6 cm in larger size was resected from the pelvis. Histological examination revealed a tumor composed of epithelioid and spindle cells, exhibiting either a clear or slightly eosinophilic cytoplasm and a mild to moderate nuclear pleomorphism. Focal areas of necrosis could be documented. Immunohistochemically, tumor cells were positive for HMB45, melan-A, and smooth muscle actin, but negative for other antibodies, including epithelial markers, desmin, and S100 protein. We believe that this case represents an example of myomelanocytic tumor of uncertain biologic potential, a member of the recently devised perivascular epithelioid cell tumors (PEComa), with an unusual presentation simulating a diffuse mesothelial neoplasm. The origin of this particular lesion is briefly discussed in light of the recent literature published on the subject.