Coupling Toll-like receptor signaling with phagocytosis: potentiation of antigen presentation

Trends Immunol. 2007 Jan;28(1):19-25. doi: 10.1016/ Epub 2006 Nov 28.


Much attention has focused on the role of co-stimulation in dictating tolerance versus immunity to internalized antigens, with the assumption that the presentation of antigen-derived peptides by MHC molecules occurs constitutively. Here, I highlight our new appreciation for the regulated presentation of phagocytosed antigens by MHC class II molecules as a direct result of controlling phagosome maturation by Toll-like receptors. I discuss how the mode of antigen delivery into dendritic cells coupled with the right type of signal transduction pathway can impact greatly not only the co-stimulatory context in which the antigen is presented to naive T cells (signal 2) but MHC-II presentation of the antigen and formation of the T-cell receptor ligand (signal 1) itself.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antigen Presentation / immunology*
  • Antigens / immunology
  • Histocompatibility Antigens Class II / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Models, Immunological
  • Phagocytosis / immunology*
  • Signal Transduction / immunology*
  • Toll-Like Receptors / immunology*


  • Antigens
  • Histocompatibility Antigens Class II
  • Toll-Like Receptors