Head-mounted goggles for murine form deprivation myopia

J Neurosci Methods. 2007 Mar 30;161(1):96-100. doi: 10.1016/j.jneumeth.2006.10.011. Epub 2006 Nov 28.


Recently a murine model has been developed for use in form deprivation myopia experiments. Due to the small size of the head and eye, methods to blur visual input to the mouse eye are challenging. Previous methods to induce form deprivation include lid suture and gluing diffuser goggles directly to the fur around the eye. In this paper we describe a new method of goggling using a head pedestal and goggle, which improves compliance and allows for better ocular health. Nob mice, previously shown to be highly susceptible to form deprivation myopia, were used for these experiments. Immediately following baseline refraction using an infrared automated photorefractor, mice were either goggled with a diffuser attached directly to the fur or with a head-mounted goggling apparatus. The goggle apparatus consists of five main components: goggle and frame, head pedestal, acrylic cube for stabilization, and balancing bar. Mice were goggled for 2 weeks in which ocular health and goggle position was monitored and then had a final refraction. The use of head-mounted goggles resulted in 75% fewer instances of goggle loss and 55% fewer ocular complications compared to goggles glued to the fur. Both goggling methods induced a myopic shift of approximately 5 diopters. The head-mounted goggle apparatus provides an improved method for inducing form deprivation in mice and offers the ability to easily take repeated refractive measurements as well as allowing for the use of defocusing lenses.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Eye Protective Devices / adverse effects*
  • Functional Laterality
  • Mice
  • Mice, Mutant Strains
  • Myopia / etiology*
  • Myopia / pathology
  • Refraction, Ocular*
  • Sensory Deprivation*