Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients have hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia and increased risk of atherosclerosis and acute vascular complications. We have reported elevated circulating tissue factor procoagulant activity (TF-PCA) during hyperglycemia (HG) and hyperinsulinemia (HI) in normal subjects. To evaluate the effect of hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia on blood cell activation, we assessed platelet CD40L and P-selectin, monocyte tissue factor (TF), and the formation of monocyte-platelet and neutrophil-platelet aggregates. These were assessed in the resting state and following activation with ADP and thrombin (SFLLRN). Healthy individuals were subjected to 24 h of hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, selective hyperglycemia, selective hyperinsulinemia, or normal glucose and insulin. Platelet CD40L expression increased with high glucose/high insulin, selective hyperglycemia and selective hyperinsulinemia. Monocyte-platelet aggregates increased with high glucose/high insulin. Monocyte TF expression increased with high glucose/high insulin and with selective hyperinsulinemia. Upon stimulation with ADP and SFLLRN, monocyte-platelet and neutrophil-platelet aggregates, platelet CD40L and P-selectin, and monocyte TF increased compared to the resting state but was not different between 0 and 24 h, indicating that the responsiveness to those agonists was not altered.
Conclusions: Hyperglycemia-hyperinsulinemia in healthy individuals induced platelet activation and monocyte TF expression promoting a procoagulant and proinflammatory state that may contribute to acute vascular events and atherogenesis. Platelet responsiveness to activation with ADP or SFLLRN appears not to be altered by hyperglycemia-hyperinsulinemia.