Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta signaling has been shown to promote tumor growth and metastasis in advanced cancer. Use of inhibitors of TGF-beta signaling may thus be a novel strategy for treatment of patients with such cancers. In this study, we investigated the effects of a novel TGF-beta type I receptor (TbetaR-I) kinase inhibitor, Ki26894, on bone metastasis of a highly bone-metastatic variant of human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells, termed MDA-MB-231-5a-D (MDA-231-D). Ki26894 blocked TGF-beta signaling in MDA-231-D cells, as detected by suppression of phosphorylation of Smad2 and inhibition of TGF-beta-responsive reporter activity. Moreover, Ki26894 decreased the motility and the invasion of MDA-231-D cells induced by TGF-beta in vitro. Ki26894 also suppressed transcription of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), and interleukin-11 (IL-11) mRNA of MDA-231-D cells, which were stimulated by TGF-beta. X-ray radiography revealed that systemic Ki26894 treatment initiated 1 day before the inoculation of MDA-231-D cells into the left ventricle of BALB/cnu/nu female mice resulted in decreased bone metastasis of breast cancer cells. Moreover, Ki26894 prolonged the survival of mice inoculated with MDA-231-D cells compared to vehicle-treated mice. These findings suggest that TbetaR-I kinase inhibitors such as Ki26894 may be useful for blocking the progression of advanced cancers.