Design and validation of a new screening instrument for lower urinary tract dysfunction: the bladder control self-assessment questionnaire (B-SAQ)

Eur Urol. 2007 Jul;52(1):230-7. doi: 10.1016/j.eururo.2006.11.015. Epub 2006 Nov 15.


Objectives: To develop and validate a short patient self-assessment screening questionnaire: bladder control self-assessment questionnaire (B-SAQ) for the evaluation of lower urinary tract symptoms. This first validation study was undertaken amongst women.

Patients and methods: Three hundred twenty-nine women attending general gynaecology and urogynaecology clinics completed both the B-SAQ and Kings Health questionnaire prior to medical consultation, and independent physician assessment of the presence of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and need for treatment. The psychometric properties of the B-SAQ were subsequently analysed.

Results: The B-SAQ was quick and easy to complete, with 89% of respondents completing all items correctly in less than 5 min. The internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha score 0.90-0.91), criterion validity (Pearson's correlation values of 0.79 and 0.81, p<0.0001 with the incontinence impact domain of the Kings Health questionnaire), and test-retest reliability of the questionnaire were good. The sensitivity and specificity of the questionnaire to identify patients with bothersome LUTS was 98% and 79%, respectively.

Conclusions: LUTS are commonly underreported. Empowering patients to self-assess their bladder symptoms and the need for treatment will improve treatment-seeking behaviour. The B-SAQ is a psychometrically robust, short screening questionnaire that offers patients the ability to assess their bladder symptoms and the bother they cause, and the potential benefit of seeking medical help.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Validation Study

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Mass Screening*
  • Middle Aged
  • Quality of Life
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Self Care / methods*
  • Self Care / standards
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Surveys and Questionnaires / standards*
  • Urinary Bladder Diseases / diagnosis*
  • Urinary Bladder Diseases / psychology