Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is characterized by a loss of self-tolerance to islet antigens. In health, immunological tolerance is maintained by multiple central and peripheral mechanisms including the action of a specialized set of regulatory T cells characterized by expression of CD4 and CD25 (CD4+CD25+ Treg). It has been suggested that a defect in this cell population, either numerically or functionally, could contribute to the development of autoimmune diseases, such as T1DM. To investigate this possibility, several research groups have studied the frequency and suppressive capacity of this cell population in individuals with T1DM and, to date, there are four such studies published. We therefore performed a mini meta-analysis to compare the results in the four published studies, account for differences in their findings, and draw a consensus view on the role of this important cell subset in human T1DM.