The aim of the TEDDY study is to identify infectious agents, dietary factors, or other environmental agents, including psychosocial factors, which may either trigger islet autoimmunity, type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), or both. The study has two end points: (a) appearance of islet autoantibodies and (b) clinical diagnosis of T1DM. Six clinical centers screen newborns for high-risk HLA genotypes. As of December 2005 a total of 54,470 newborns have been screened. High-risk HLA genotypes among 53,560 general population (GP) infants were 2576 (4.8%) and among 910 newborns with a first-degree relative (FDR) were 194 (21%). A total of 1061 children have been enrolled. The initial enrollment results demonstrate the feasibility of this complex and demanding a prospective study.