Continuous glucose monitoring and external insulin pump: towards a subcutaneous closed loop

Diabetes Metab. 2006 Dec;32(5 Pt 2):534-8. doi: 10.1016/s1262-3636(06)72808-7.


The development of an artificial pancreas for the treatment of type 1 diabetes is a highly desired endeavour for type 1 diabetic patients, physicians, scientists and engineers. The development of the first miniaturized external pumps in the 70s and the pharmacokinetic properties of short acting insulin analogues, closer to physiology, have raised hopes for the elaboration of such a device. Recent technological progress in the development of continuous glucose sensors, have improved the reliability and accuracy of these devices. This has led to the development of prototypes of closed-loop system based on the combination of a continuous monitor, a control algorithm, and an insulin pump. This review focuses on the SC-SC approach, employing subcutaneous glucose monitoring and subcutaneous insulin delivery. The feasibility of this solution has been proven at a small scale, but remains to be confirmed in the home setting. Intermediate solutions, such as semi-automatic systems, might be immediately valuable.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Blood Glucose / analysis*
  • Humans
  • Insulin Infusion Systems*
  • Monitoring, Physiologic / methods*


  • Blood Glucose