Lysophosphatidic acid downregulates tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases, which are negatively involved in lysophosphatidic acid-induced cell invasion

Oncogene. 2007 May 3;26(20):2894-901. doi: 10.1038/sj.onc.1210093. Epub 2006 Nov 27.

Abstract

Ovarian cancer is a highly metastatic disease. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) levels are elevated in ascites from ovarian cancer patients, but its potential role in ovarian cancer metastasis has just begun to be revealed. In this work, we show that LPA stimulates invasion of primary ovarian cancer cells, but not ovarian epithelial or borderline ovarian tumor cells, although these benign cells indeed respond to LPA in cell migration. We have found that LPA downregulates tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMPs). TIMP2 and TIMP3 play functional role in LPA-induced invasion as negative regulators. G(i) protein, phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), cytosolic phospholipase A(2) and urokinase type plasminogen activator (uPA) are required for LPA-induced cells invasion. TIMP3 may affect two independent downstream targets, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor and p38 MAPK. In vivo, LPA stimulates tumor metastasis in an orthotopic ovarian tumor model, which can be inhibited by a PI3K inhibitor, LY294002. In summary, LPA is likely a key component for promoting ovarian metastasis in vivo. LPA downregulates TIMP3, which may have targets other than metalloproteinases. Our in vivo metastasis mouse model is useful for studying the efficacy of therapeutic regimes of ovarian cancer.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cell Movement / drug effects*
  • Epithelial Cells / drug effects
  • Female
  • GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gi-Go / metabolism
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / drug effects*
  • Humans
  • Lysophospholipids / pharmacology*
  • Mice
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Neoplasm Metastasis
  • Ovarian Neoplasms / genetics*
  • Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases / metabolism
  • Phosphoinositide-3 Kinase Inhibitors
  • Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases / genetics*
  • Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases / metabolism
  • Tumor Cells, Cultured
  • Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays
  • p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / metabolism

Substances

  • Lysophospholipids
  • Phosphoinositide-3 Kinase Inhibitors
  • Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases
  • p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
  • GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gi-Go
  • lysophosphatidic acid