Clinical outcomes of childhood lupus nephritis: a single center's experience

Pediatr Nephrol. 2007 Feb;22(2):222-31. doi: 10.1007/s00467-006-0286-0. Epub 2006 Nov 28.


This study retrospectively reviewed the medical records of children with lupus nephritis (LN) who were treated at Seoul National University Children's Hospital from 1986 to 2005 (mean duration 8.3+/-4.4 years). The records of 77 children (22 male and 55 female) were examined. The mean age at diagnosis was 11.9+/-3.0 years. The initial biopsy results revealed a WHO class IV classification for 60 (88.2%) of 68 biopsy proven cases. Of 77 patients, 67 (87.0%) responded initially to the high-dose corticosteroids with or without additional immunosuppressive therapy. Of the initial responders (67), 30 (44.8%) experienced at least one episode of proteinuric (24) or nephritic (6) flare. Thirteen patients (16.9%) progressed to either chronic renal failure (CRF) or end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Six (7.8%) patients died. A Kaplan-Meier estimate of patient survival and CRF-free survival rate was 95.4% and 88.7% at 5 years and 91.8% and 74.7% at 10 years, respectively. Multivariate analysis for class IV LN revealed male gender (P=0.029), initial hypertension (P=0.001) and absence of remission (P=0.002) to be prognostic factors predicting CRF. Glomerulosclerosis of 10% or more (P=0.005), nephritic flare (P=0.011), and presence of anti-phospholipid antibody (P=0.017) or syndrome (P=0.004) were also found to be independent risk factors for CRF. Cyclophosphamide pulse therapy failed to demonstrate superiority over other combined immunosuppressants used for the treatment of diffuse proliferative LN.

Publication types

  • Evaluation Study

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Antiphospholipid Syndrome / diagnosis
  • Antiphospholipid Syndrome / etiology
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Disease Progression
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use
  • Kaplan-Meier Estimate
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / diagnosis
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / etiology
  • Korea
  • Lupus Nephritis / complications*
  • Lupus Nephritis / diagnosis*
  • Lupus Nephritis / drug therapy
  • Lupus Nephritis / mortality
  • Male
  • Prognosis
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Survival Rate


  • Immunosuppressive Agents