Background: Thyroid surgery is performed by a large number of surgeons with varying experience in thyroidectomy. The standard technique involves the use of general anesthesia, which provides patient comfort and virtually unlimited time to conduct the operation. Historically, thyroid surgery was conducted under local anesthesia by surgeons with significant expertise in the treatment of thyroid diseases. Over the past decade, there has been a renewed interest in the art of performing thyroidectomy under local/regional anesthesia in some specialized high volume endocrine surgery centers.
Methods: Here we review the indications and contraindications and technical considerations for performing thyroidectomy under local or regional anesthesia.
Results and conclusion: Local and regional anesthesia is safe and well tolerated for the majority of thyroid surgery.