Nonclinical vehicle use in studies by multiple routes in multiple species

Int J Toxicol. Nov-Dec 2006;25(6):499-521. doi: 10.1080/10915810600961531.


The laboratory toxicologist is frequently faced with the challenge of selecting appropriate vehicles or developing utilitarian formulations for use in in vivo nonclinical safety assessment studies. Although there are many vehicles available that may meet physical and chemical requirements for chemical or pharmaceutical formulation, there are wide differences in species and route of administration specific to tolerances to these vehicles. In current practice, these differences are largely approached on a basis of individual experience as there is only scattered literature on individual vehicles and no comprehensive treatment or information source. This approach leads to excessive animal use and unplanned delays in testing and development. To address this need, a consulting firm and three contract research organizations conducted a rigorous data mining operation of control (vehicle) data from studies dating from 1991 to present. The results identified 65 single component vehicles used in 368 studies across multiple species (dog, primate, rat, mouse, rabbit, guinea pig, minipig, chick embryo, and cat) by multiple routes. Reported here are the results of this effort, including maximum tolerated use levels by species, route, and duration of study, with accompanying dose limiting toxicity. Also included are basic chemical information and a review of available literature on each vehicle, as well as guidance on volume limits and pH by route and some basic guidance on nonclinical formulation development.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Databases, Factual
  • Drug Administration Routes
  • Drug Evaluation, Preclinical / methods*
  • Pharmaceutical Vehicles / administration & dosage
  • Pharmaceutical Vehicles / toxicity*
  • Toxicity Tests


  • Pharmaceutical Vehicles