A case-control study to determine risk factors for hospitalization for rotavirus gastroenteritis in U.S. children

Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2006 Dec;25(12):1123-31. doi: 10.1097/01.inf.0000243777.01375.5b.


Objective: The objective of this case-control study nested within a surveillance study conducted at 3 hospitals (Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH; Children's Hospital of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA; and Hasbro Children's Hospital, Providence, RI) was to identify risk factors for rotavirus gastroenteritis requiring hospitalization.

Patients: Cases were children < or =59 months of age who were admitted with acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and found to have rotavirus infection. Controls were selected from a birth certificate registry (Cincinnati and Providence) or a registry of patients from a large practice consortium in 11 locations (New Orleans).

Results: Three hundred forty-nine rotavirus-infected cases and 1242 control subjects were enrolled. Breast feeding was protective against hospitalization for rotavirus AGE for infants <6 months of age. (odds ratio [OR], 5.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-13.2). Low-birth-weight (<2500 g) infants had increased risk for hospitalization even beyond the first few months of life (OR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.6-5.0). Children in child care were more likely to be hospitalized for rotavirus AGE than those cared for at home, particularly those > or =24 months of age (OR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.8-5.3). Other characteristics associated with rotavirus AGE hospitalization were children <24 months of age covered by Medicaid or without insurance (OR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.4-3.2) and having another child in the house <24 months of age (OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.1-2.3). The data suggest that maternal age <25 years (OR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.0-2.0) and a mother with less than a high school education (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.0-2.3) may also increase risk of rotavirus hospitalization.

Conclusion: There are socioeconomic and environmental factors and aspects of the child's medical and dietary history that identify children at risk for hospitalization with rotavirus AGE.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Age Factors
  • Breast Feeding
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Child Care
  • Child, Preschool
  • Education
  • Female
  • Gastroenteritis / epidemiology*
  • Gastroenteritis / virology
  • Hospitalization / statistics & numerical data*
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant, Low Birth Weight
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Male
  • Odds Ratio
  • Risk Factors
  • Rotavirus / isolation & purification*
  • Rotavirus Infections / epidemiology*
  • Rotavirus Infections / virology
  • Socioeconomic Factors
  • United States