We amplified, sequenced and studied the transcriptional regulation of genes of the alcoholic fermentation pathway in the biocontrol and non-Saccharomyces wine yeast, Pichia anomala. Two ADH isogenes, PaADH1 and PaADH2, and one PDC gene, PaPDC1, were amplified from genomic P. anomala DNA by a two-step PCR approach, using degenerated primers against conserved regions of the respective genes for cloning core regions, and PCR-based gene walking for cloning the respective 5' and 3'-ends. According to sequence analysis, ADH1 and PDC1 are most likely cytoplasmatic proteins, while ADH2 is most probably localized in the mitochondria. PaADH1 was expressed during aerobic growth on glucose, ethanol and succinate, but was nine-fold upregulated in response to oxygen limitation when grown on glucose. The gene seems to be involved in both production and consumption of ethanol. Only low expression of PaADH2 was detected during growth on glucose and ethanol, but it was highly expressed during growth on the non-fermentable carbon source succinate and repressed by the addition of glucose. PaPDC1 was expressed during aerobic growth on glucose and was upregulated four-fold in response to oxygen limitation. PaPDC1 expression was lower in cells grown on ethanol and succinate than on glucose and was up- regulated two- and four-fold, respectively, after glucose addition. Our results demonstrate that transcription of genes of the fermentative pathway is regulated by hypoxia and carbon source but posttranscriptional regulation may play a major role in regulating the metabolic flux.
Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.