Madarosis may be a presenting feature of a number of vision and life-threatening conditions, including herpes zoster, leprosy, HIV/AIDS, trachoma, malignant eyelid tumors, discoid lupus, scleroderma, and hypothyroidism. It may occur via two broad pathogenic pathways: scarring and non-scarring, which indicates the potential for lash re-growth. Madarosis may occur as an isolated finding or together with loss of other body and scalp hair. The etiology of madarosis can be further divided into dermatological, infection, endocrine, neoplastic, drug-related, congenital, and trauma. This report includes salient points in the clinical history and examination of patients with madarosis, with an emphasis on excluding or diagnosing visual or life threatening disorders associated with madarosis.