Complement inactivating proteins and intraspecies venom variation in Crotalus oreganus helleri

Toxicon. 2007 Mar 1;49(3):339-50. doi: 10.1016/j.toxicon.2006.10.004. Epub 2006 Oct 25.


Complement inactivating properties were detected in venom from the southern California distribution of Crotalus oreganus helleri (Southern Pacific Rattlesnake). This activity showed strong geographic bias to the San Bernardino Mountain range, and venom from this area reacted strongly with Fraction 5 antiserum (AF5). However, venoms from the San Jacinto Mountain range, which have been previously shown to contain Mojave toxin, did not inhibit complement and did not react with AF5. AF5 has been previously shown to recognize a protease in C. scutulatus venom that inactivates complement, but the identity of this protein has remained unknown. Using a functional venomic approach, utilizing two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS), we have identified catrocollastatin and hemorrhagic toxin II (HT-2) as the primary proteins recognized by AF5. The information we present within this manuscript further illustrates the now well-known reality of intraspecies venom variation and the challenges faced in providing comprehensive polyvalent antivenoms.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  • Complement Inactivator Proteins / chemistry
  • Complement Inactivator Proteins / pharmacology*
  • Crotalid Venoms / chemistry
  • Crotalid Venoms / pharmacology*
  • Crotalus*
  • Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional
  • Female
  • Geography
  • Male
  • Metalloendopeptidases / chemistry
  • Metalloendopeptidases / pharmacology*
  • Species Specificity
  • Tandem Mass Spectrometry


  • Complement Inactivator Proteins
  • Crotalid Venoms
  • hemorrhagin components (Crotalid)
  • Metalloendopeptidases
  • catrocollastatin