To evaluate the value of visual and auditory P300 for predicting the response of multiple sclerosis-related fatigue to modafinil treatment, 33 patients were treated with 100 mg modafinil once daily for 4 weeks, following a 4-week baseline phase and an optional 8-week extension phase. The main clinical outcome parameter was a decrease in the fatigue visual analogue score (VAS) before and after 4 weeks of treatment. Patients with shorter auditory P300 latency at baseline were more likely to benefit from modafinil treatment. Auditory P300 latency predicted treatment response with a specificity of 76% and a sensitivity of 75% at a cut-off latency of 350 ms. Visual P300 latency could not be used to predict treatment response. Baseline auditory P300 latency predicted treatment response, whereas visual P300 latency did not. Clinical improvement did not correlate with changes in either visual or auditory P300.