Background: Contrast media-induced nephropathy (CIN) is an increasing cause of hospital-acquired acute kidney injury and leads to a significant increase in mortality. There is uncertainty whether the use of iso-osmolar contrast media as opposed to the use of low-osmolar contrast media would be associated with a lower incidence of CIN. Therefore, we compared the nephrotoxicity of isoosmotic contrast media iodixanol with the low-osmotic contrast media iopromid in patients receiving contrast media during coronary angiography.
Methods: In this prospective double-blind study we examined 221 patients with normal renal function who received up to 1,000 ml of contrast media during coronary angiography, and compared the effect of iodixanol and iopromid on inducing contrast media nephropathy. Patients received 800 ml fluid orally before contrast media administration and 1,000 ml saline i.v. thereafter. Creatinine clearance, serum creatinine and urine-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) concentration was obtained 24 h before and 48 h after contrast media administration. Decrease of 20% of the creatinine clearance, increase of 25% of serum creatinine and increase of 20% of the urine concentration of NAG was defined as CIN.
Results: Incidence of CIN assessed by decreased creatinine clearance was 22.2% in the iopromid group and 19.7% in the iodixanol group. CIN defined by increased serum creatinine was 6.9% in the iopromid group and 8.6% in the iodixanol group. The difference between these two groups was not significant. Subgroup analysis of the diabetic patients or the patients that received high dose of contrast media revealed no significant difference in the incidence of CIN between the two contrast media.
Conclusion: The iso-osmolar and the low-osmolar contrast media exhibited the same incidence of CIN in our study population. If fluid administration is sufficient, the selection of either iopromid or iodixanol has no impact on the risk of developing CIN in patients with normal renal function, even when they are diabetic or receive a high dose of more than 500 ml contrast media.