Higher dimensional (Hi-D) separation strategies dramatically improve the potential for cancer biomarker detection in serum and plasma

J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2007 Apr 15;849(1-2):43-52. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2006.10.069. Epub 2006 Nov 30.


The plasma proteome has a wide dynamic range of protein concentrations and is dominated by a few highly abundant proteins. Discovery of novel cancer biomarkers using proteomics is particularly challenging because specific biomarkers are expected to be low abundance proteins with normal blood concentrations of low nanograms per milliliter or less. Conventional, one- and two-dimensional proteomic methods including 2D PAGE, 2D DIGE, LC-MS/MS, and LC/LC-MS/MS do not have the capacity to consistently detect many proteins in this range. In contrast, new higher dimensional (Hi-D) separation strategies, utilizing more than two dimensions of fractionation, can profile the low abundance proteome.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Biomarkers, Tumor / blood*
  • Blood Proteins / analysis*
  • Chromatography, Liquid / methods
  • Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional
  • Humans
  • Mass Spectrometry / methods
  • Plasma / metabolism*
  • Proteomics / methods*
  • Serum / metabolism*


  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Blood Proteins