Dullard promotes degradation and dephosphorylation of BMP receptors and is required for neural induction

Dev Cell. 2006 Dec;11(6):763-74. doi: 10.1016/j.devcel.2006.10.001.


Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) regulate multiple biological processes, including cellular proliferation, adhesion, differentiation, and early development. In Xenopus development, inhibition of the BMP pathway is essential for neural induction. Here, we report that dullard, a gene involved in neural development, functions as a negative regulator of BMP signaling. We show that Dullard promotes the ubiquitin-mediated proteosomal degradation of BMP receptors (BMPRs). Dullard preferentially complexes with the BMP type II receptor (BMPRII) and partially colocalizes with the caveolin-1-positive compartment, suggesting that Dullard promotes BMPR degradation via the lipid raft-caveolar pathway. Dullard also associates with BMP type I receptors and represses the BMP-dependent phosphorylation of the BMP type I receptor. The phosphatase activity of Dullard is essential for the degradation of BMP receptors and neural induction in Xenopus. Together, these observations suggest that Dullard is an essential inhibitor of BMP receptor activation during Xenopus neuralization.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors, Type I / genetics
  • Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors, Type I / metabolism*
  • Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors, Type II / genetics
  • Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors, Type II / metabolism*
  • Bone Morphogenetic Proteins
  • Caveolin 1 / metabolism
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental
  • Homeodomain Proteins / metabolism
  • Immunoblotting
  • Immunoprecipitation
  • Membrane Microdomains
  • Mutation
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins / genetics
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins / physiology*
  • Neurons / cytology
  • Neurons / metabolism*
  • Oligodeoxyribonucleotides, Antisense / pharmacology
  • Phosphoprotein Phosphatases
  • Phosphorylation
  • Plasmids
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Signal Transduction
  • Transcription Factors / metabolism
  • Ubiquitin / metabolism*
  • Xenopus Proteins / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Xenopus Proteins / genetics
  • Xenopus Proteins / metabolism
  • Xenopus Proteins / physiology*
  • Xenopus laevis / embryology
  • Xenopus laevis / genetics
  • Xenopus laevis / metabolism


  • Bone Morphogenetic Proteins
  • Caveolin 1
  • Homeodomain Proteins
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins
  • Oligodeoxyribonucleotides, Antisense
  • Transcription Factors
  • Ubiquitin
  • Xenopus Proteins
  • Zic3 protein, Xenopus
  • Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors, Type I
  • Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors, Type II
  • Phosphoprotein Phosphatases
  • ctdnep1 protein, Xenopus