Gypenoside XLIX, a naturally occurring gynosaponin, PPAR-alpha dependently inhibits LPS-induced tissue factor expression and activity in human THP-1 monocytic cells

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2007 Jan 1;218(1):30-6. doi: 10.1016/j.taap.2006.10.013. Epub 2006 Oct 25.


Tissue factor (TF) is involved not only in the progression of atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases, but is also associated with tumor growth, metastasis, and angiogenesis and hence may be an attractive target for directed cancer therapeutics. Gynostemma pentaphyllum (GP) is widely used in the treatment of various cardiovascular diseases including atherosclerosis, as well as cancers. Gypenoside (Gyp) XLIX, a dammarane-type glycoside, is one of the prominent components in GP. We have recently reported Gyp XLIX to be a potent peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-alpha activator. Here we demonstrate that Gyp XLIX (0-300 microM) concentration dependently inhibited TF promoter activity after induction by the inflammatory stimulus lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in human monocytic THP-1 cells transfected with promoter reporter constructs pTF-LUC. Furthermore, Gyp XLIX inhibited LPS-induced TF mRNA and protein overexpression in THP-1 monocyte cells. Its inhibition of LPS-induced TF hyperactivity was further confirmed by chromogenic enzyme activity assay. The activities of Gyp XLIX reported in this study were similar to those of Wy-14643, a potent synthetic PPAR-alpha activator. Furthermore, the Gyp XLIX-induced inhibitory effect on TF luciferase activity was completely abolished in the presence of the PPAR-alpha selective antagonist MK-886. The present findings suggest that Gyp XLIX inhibits LPS-induced TF overexpression and enhancement of its activity in human THP-1 monocytic cells via PPAR-alpha-dependent pathways. The data provide new insights into the basis of the use of the traditional Chinese herbal medicine G. pentaphyllum for the treatment of cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases, as well as cancers.

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / pharmacology
  • Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / pharmacology
  • Cardiovascular Agents / pharmacology
  • Cell Line
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Drugs, Chinese Herbal / chemistry
  • Drugs, Chinese Herbal / pharmacology*
  • Gynostemma*
  • Humans
  • Indoles / pharmacology
  • Lipopolysaccharides / antagonists & inhibitors*
  • Lipopolysaccharides / pharmacology
  • Monocytes / drug effects*
  • Monocytes / metabolism
  • NF-kappa B / antagonists & inhibitors
  • PPAR alpha / agonists*
  • PPAR alpha / metabolism
  • Peroxisome Proliferators / pharmacology
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic / drug effects
  • Pyrimidines / pharmacology
  • Pyrrolidines / pharmacology
  • RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis
  • Saponins / chemistry
  • Saponins / isolation & purification
  • Saponins / pharmacology*
  • Thiocarbamates / pharmacology
  • Thromboplastin / biosynthesis*
  • Thromboplastin / genetics
  • Transcription, Genetic / drug effects
  • Transfection


  • 3-((O-6-deoxymannopyranosyl-1-2-O-(xylopyranosyl-1-3)arabinopyranosyl)oxy)-21-glucopyranosyloxy-20-hydroxydammar-24-en-19-al
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents
  • Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic
  • Cardiovascular Agents
  • Drugs, Chinese Herbal
  • Indoles
  • Lipopolysaccharides
  • NF-kappa B
  • PPAR alpha
  • Peroxisome Proliferators
  • Pyrimidines
  • Pyrrolidines
  • RNA, Messenger
  • Saponins
  • Thiocarbamates
  • MK-886
  • pyrrolidine dithiocarbamic acid
  • pirinixic acid
  • Thromboplastin