Glargine versus NPH insulin: efficacy in comparison with insulin aspart in a basal bolus regimen in type 1 diabetes--the glargine and aspart study (GLASS) a randomised cross-over study

Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2007 Aug;77(2):215-22. doi: 10.1016/j.diabres.2006.11.002. Epub 2006 Dec 1.


The aim of the study was to compare the efficacy of insulin glargine and aspart with NPH insulin and aspart in a basal bolus regimen in type 1 diabetes. In this 36-week randomised open-label two-period cross-over trial, subjects received 16 weeks' treatment with either once-daily insulin glargine or twice-daily NPH insulin after 4-week run-in. Primary outcome was HbA1c and secondary outcomes were fasting plasma glucose (FPG), weight change, incidence of hypoglycaemia, effect on lipid profile and patient satisfaction. Sixty patients with type 1 diabetes were recruited (33 male, mean age 42.7 years, mean HbA1c 8.53%) with 53 completing the study. At completion, HbA1c was lower with glargine and aspart than with NPH and aspart (8.07% versus 8.26%, difference -0.19 [95% CI 0.37-0.01]%, p=0.04). FPG was significantly different between glargine and NPH (p=0.002), with mean FPG on glargine 3mmol/L lower than on NPH at the end of the study. There were no differences in hypoglycaemia rate (p=0.63), weight (p=0.45) or lipid profile (p=0.18). Patient satisfaction was greater with glargine (DTSQ, p=0.001). Three patients discontinued as they wished to remain on glargine. We suggest that glargine combined with aspart is an effective basal bolus regimen in type 1 diabetes.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Blood Glucose / drug effects
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism*
  • Blood Pressure
  • Cholesterol / blood
  • Cross-Over Studies
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / drug therapy*
  • Drug Administration Schedule
  • Drug Therapy, Combination
  • Female
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A / analysis
  • Humans
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / therapeutic use
  • Insulin / administration & dosage
  • Insulin / analogs & derivatives*
  • Insulin / therapeutic use
  • Insulin Aspart
  • Insulin Glargine
  • Insulin, Isophane / administration & dosage
  • Insulin, Isophane / therapeutic use*
  • Insulin, Long-Acting
  • Male
  • Middle Aged


  • Blood Glucose
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A
  • Hypoglycemic Agents
  • Insulin
  • Insulin, Long-Acting
  • Insulin Glargine
  • Insulin, Isophane
  • Cholesterol
  • Insulin Aspart