Crystals of baculovirus-expressed adeno-associated virus serotype 1 (AAV1) capsids have been grown in the rhombohedral space group R32 (unit-cell parameters a = 254.7 A, alpha = 62.3 degrees) and shown to diffract X-rays to at least 2.5 A resolution. The diffraction data were subsequently processed and reduced with an overall R(sym) of 12.3% and a completeness of 89.0%. Based on the unit-cell volume, rotation-function and translation-function results and packing considerations, there is one virus capsid (60 viral proteins) per unit cell and there are ten viral proteins per crystallographic asymmetric unit. The AAV1 capsid shares both the twofold and threefold crystallographic symmetry operators. The AAV1 data have been initially phased using a polyalanine model (based on the crystal structure of AAV4) to 4.0 A resolution and the structure determination and refinement is in progress using tenfold noncrystallographic symmetry electron-density averaging.