Lymphoid enhancer factor/T cell factor proteins (LEF/TCFs) mediate Wnt signals in the nucleus by recruiting beta-catenin and its co-activators to Wnt response elements (WREs) of target genes. This activity is important during development but its misregulation plays a role in disease such as cancer, where overactive Wnt signaling drives LEF/TCFs to transform cells. The size of the LEF/TCF family is small: approximately four members in vertebrates and one orthologous form in flies, worms and hydra. However, size belies complexity. The LEF/TCF family exhibits extensive patterns of alternative splicing, alternative promoter usage and activities of repression, as well as activation. Recent work from numerous laboratories has highlighted how this complexity has important biological consequences in development and disease.