Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA9) is a renal cell carcinoma (RCC)-specific tumor protein that is targeted using heat shock protein 110 (hsp110). The chaperoning ability of hsp110 can be utilized to form a complex with CA9 (hsp110 + CA9) in vitro, which can be administered as a highly concentrated tumor vaccine. In a tumor prevention model, hsp110 + CA9 prevented the growth of RENCA tumors in BALB/c mice, and produced IFN-gamma response measured using ELISPOT and an antibody response measured using ELISA. To test a second vaccine strategy, hsp110 complexed to a previously described CA9 peptide prevented tumor growth and produced a very weak IFN-gamma response, but no antibody response. A plasmid vector containing grp170, a member of the hsp110 family, linked to CA9 did not produce an antitumor response and produced no IFN-gamma response or antibodies. In a model of metastatic RCC, RENCA cells were injected intradermally prior to vaccination. Hsp110 + CA9 decreased tumor growth compared to control vaccinations. These studies suggest that recombinant hsp110 complexed to CA9 should be evaluated for treatment of RCC.