Predictors of long-term outcome of children with idiopathic focal segmental glomerulosclerosis

Pediatr Nephrol. 2007 Feb;22(2):215-21. doi: 10.1007/s00467-006-0264-6. Epub 2006 Dec 5.


Clinical and histological data of children presenting with steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome and renal biopsy showing focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis from 1980 with a follow-up of over 10 years were reviewed. There were 66 patients; 38 male and 28 female. Age at onset ranged from 0.4-14.1 years (mean 6.4). Tubular atrophy was present at first biopsy in 50/66, capsular adhesions in 35/66, glomerular tip lesions in 8/66 and mesangial expansion in 31/66 patients. In 51 children, cyclophosphamide was prescribed as the first cytotoxic agent, while 15 received cyclosporine A and complete remission was induced in 43 and 40% of the children, respectively. Complete and stable remission was maintained in 35 children, while 22 had reduction of proteinuria with symptomatic relief. Nine were refractory to cytotoxic therapy. Of the 35 patients who entered complete and stable remission, the renal survival was over 90%, while in the 31 non-responders it was 48% in 10 years. The multivariate analysis using unconditional logistic regression method identified the presence of mesangial expansion (p=0.011) and tip lesions (p=0.005) as the independent predictors of favourable response to cytotoxic therapy and the presence of renal impairment (p=0.008) and extensive focal segmental sclerosis (p=0.025) as independent predictors of unfavourable response.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Female
  • Glomerulosclerosis, Focal Segmental / complications
  • Glomerulosclerosis, Focal Segmental / diagnosis
  • Glomerulosclerosis, Focal Segmental / drug therapy*
  • Humans
  • Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use
  • Infant
  • Logistic Models
  • Male
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Prognosis
  • Proteinuria / diagnosis*
  • Proteinuria / etiology
  • Renal Insufficiency / diagnosis*
  • Renal Insufficiency / etiology
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Immunosuppressive Agents