Hypoxic respiratory failure in the late preterm infant

Clin Perinatol. 2006 Dec;33(4):803-30; abstract viii-ix. doi: 10.1016/j.clp.2006.09.006.


Hypoxic respiratory failure in late preterm infants has received increased attention in the last decade, and while the incidence is low, it accounts for a significant number of admissions to neonatal ICUs because of the large number of late preterm births in the United States and worldwide. Causes of respiratory distress include transient tachypnea of the newborn, surfactant deficiency, pneumonia, and pulmonary hypertension. The physiologic mechanisms underlying delayed transition caused by surfactant deficiency and poor fetal lung fluid absorption have been reviewed recently elsewhere. This article focuses on the less-explored problem of severe hypoxic respiratory failure in the late preterm infant and discusses potential strategies for management.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Bronchodilator Agents / therapeutic use
  • Cesarean Section / statistics & numerical data
  • Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hypertension, Pulmonary / therapy
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Infant, Premature
  • Nitric Oxide / therapeutic use
  • Pregnancy
  • Premature Birth
  • Pulmonary Surfactants / therapeutic use
  • Respiration, Artificial
  • Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn / epidemiology
  • Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn / therapy*
  • Trial of Labor


  • Bronchodilator Agents
  • Pulmonary Surfactants
  • Nitric Oxide