Genetic alterations in bladder cancer and their clinical applications in molecular tumor staging

Nat Clin Pract Urol. 2006 Dec;3(12):642-52. doi: 10.1038/ncpuro0649.


Molecular biology is expected to provide new tools and approaches to assess the prognosis of patients with bladder cancer, by providing information on the risks of tumor recurrence and progression from superficial bladder cancer to an invasive phenotype. Genetic and epigenetic alterations have been closely associated with bladder carcinogenesis and progression, although most of these are still under investigation in a preclinical setting. This article highlights current findings from molecular studies, and describes their potential application in molecular staging of bladder cancer.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / diagnosis
  • Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / genetics*
  • Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / pathology*
  • Humans
  • Mutation*
  • Neoplasm Staging
  • Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / genetics*
  • Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology*