This study describes injury and illness rates and some risk factors among soldiers from an armor division during a rotation at the National Training Center (Fort Irwin, California). Soldiers from a brigade of the 1st Cavalry Division were involved in a 5-week training exercise at the National Training Center. Health care visits were systematically recorded by the unit medics. Of 4,101 men and 413 women who participated in the exercise, 504 soldiers (409 men and 95 women) sought medical care at the main support medical clinic or Weed Army Community Hospital. The rates of injury and illness visits were 1.2% and 0.6% per week for men and 2.3% and 2.2% per week for women, respectively. Women had twice the risk of an injury and 3.5 times the risk of an illness, compared with men. Compared with other branches, combat service support soldiers had higher rates of injuries and illnesses. Enlisted soldiers of lower rank (E1-E4) experienced higher injury and illness rates than did noncommissioned officers and commissioned officers. Musculoskeletal injuries, environmental conditions, and dermatological conditions accounted for most visits.