Cross-talk with myeloid accessory cells regulates human natural killer cell interferon-gamma responses to malaria

PLoS Pathog. 2006 Dec;2(12):e118. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.0020118.


Data from a variety of experimental models suggest that natural killer (NK) cells require signals from accessory cells in order to respond optimally to pathogens, but the precise identity of the cells able to provide such signals depends upon the nature of the infectious organism. Here we show that the ability of human NK cells to produce interferon-gamma in response to stimulation by Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells (iRBCs) is strictly dependent upon multiple, contact-dependent and cytokine-mediated signals derived from both monocytes and myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs). Contrary to some previous reports, we find that both monocytes and mDCs express an activated phenotype following short-term incubation with iRBCs and secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines. The magnitude of the NK cell response (and of the KIR(-) CD56(bright) NK cell population in particular) is tightly correlated with resting levels of accessory cell maturation, indicating that heterogeneity of the NK response to malaria is a reflection of deep-rooted heterogeneity in the human innate immune system. Moreover, we show that NK cells are required to maintain the maturation status of resting mDCs and monocytes, providing additional evidence for reciprocal regulation of NK cells and accessory cells. However, NK cell-derived signals are not required for activation of accessory cells by either iRBCs or bacterial lipolysaccharide. Together, these data suggest that there may be differences in the sequence of events required for activation of NK cells by non-viral pathogens compared to the classical model of NK activation by virus-infected or major histocompatibility complex-deficient cells. These findings have far-reaching implications for the study of immunity to infection in human populations.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antigens, CD / metabolism
  • Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte / metabolism
  • Cell Communication / immunology
  • Cell Communication / physiology*
  • Dendritic Cells / immunology
  • Dendritic Cells / metabolism
  • Erythrocytes / parasitology
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Humans
  • Immunity, Innate
  • Interferon-gamma / metabolism*
  • Interferons / physiology
  • Interleukin-2 / physiology
  • Killer Cells, Natural / immunology
  • Killer Cells, Natural / metabolism*
  • Lectins, C-Type
  • Malaria, Falciparum / immunology
  • Malaria, Falciparum / metabolism*
  • Myeloid Cells / immunology
  • Myeloid Cells / physiology*
  • Plasmodium falciparum / immunology
  • Plasmodium falciparum / pathogenicity
  • Signal Transduction / physiology


  • Antigens, CD
  • Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte
  • CD69 antigen
  • Interleukin-2
  • Lectins, C-Type
  • Interferon-gamma
  • Interferons