Objective: The efficacy and tolerability of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor sitagliptin added to ongoing pioglitazone therapy were assessed in patients with type 2 diabetes and inadequate glycemic control (glycosylated hemoglobin [HbA(1c)] > or =7% and < or =10%) while receiving a stable dose of pioglitazone.
Methods: This was a 24-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study in patients aged > or =18 years (ClinicalTrials. gov NCT00086502). At screening, all patients began a diet/exercise program that continued throughout the study period. Patients taking antihyperglycemic therapy other than pioglitazone underwent a washout of this therapy and entered an 8- to 14-week open-label pioglitazone dose-titration/stabilization period. Patients with an HbA(1c) > or =7% and < or =10% at the end of this period entered a 2-week, single-blind, placebo run-in period (total duration of run-in period, up to 21 weeks). Patients who had been receiving pioglitazone monotherapy (30 or 45 mg/d) and had an HbA(1c) > or =7% and < or =10% entered the 2-week, single-blind, placebo run-in period directly. Thus, at the time of randomization, all patients were receiving ongoing pioglitazone (30 or 45 mg/d). Patients were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to receive sitagliptin 100 mg once daily or placebo for 24 weeks. The primary efficacy end point was the change from baseline in HbA(1c) at week 24. Secondary efficacy end points included the change from baseline in fasting plasma glucose (FPG), insulin, and proinsulin; the Homeostasis Model Assessment beta-cell function and insulin-resistance indexes; the proinsulin/ insulin ratio; the Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index; the percent changes from baseline in selected lipid parameters; the proportion of patients meeting the American Diabetes Association HbA(1c), goal of <7.0%; the proportion of patients requiring metformin rescue therapy; and the time to the initiation of rescue therapy.
Results: One hundred seventy-five patients were randomized to receive sitagliptin, and 178 were randomized to receive placebo. The mean (SD) baseline HbAlc value was 8.1% (0.8) in the sitagliptin group and 8.0% (0.8) in the placebo group. After 24 weeks, sitagliptin added to pioglitazone therapy was associated with significant reductions compared with placebo in HbA(1c) (between-treatment difference in least squares [LS] mean change from baseline. -0.70 %; 95 % CI, -0.85 to -0.54; P < 0.001) and FPG (-17.7 mg/dL; 95% CI, -24.3 to -11.0; P < 0.001). Mean HbA(1c) values at end point were 7.2% (0.9) and 7.8% (1.1) in the respective treatment groups, and the proportions of patients reaching a target HbA(1c) of <7.0% were 45.4% and 23.0% (P < 0.001). Significant reductions in fasting serum proinsulin levels and the proinsulin/insulin ratio were seen with sitagliptin treatment compared with placebo (both, P < 0.01). Sitagliptin was generally well tolerated, with no increased risk of hypoglycemia compared with placebo (2 vs 0 patients, respectively).