A new Rhizobium species that nodulates Phaseolus vulgaris L. and Leucaena spp. is proposed on the basis of the results of multilocus enzyme electrophoresis, DNA-DNA hybridization, an analysis of ribosomal DNA organization, a sequence analysis of 16S rDNA, and an analysis of phenotypic characteristics. This taxon, Rhizobium tropici sp. nov., was previously named Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar phaseoli (type II strains) and was recognized by its host range (which includes Leucaena spp.) and nif gene organization. In contrast to R. leguminosarum biovar phaseoli, R. tropici strains tolerate high temperatures and high levels of acidity in culture and are symbiotically more stable. We identified two subgroups within R. tropici and describe them in this paper.