Exosomes are part of the family of "bioactive vesicles" and appear to be involved in distal communications between cells. They vehiculate bioactive lipids and lipolytic enzymes and their biogenesis require specific lipids and a membrane reorganisation. Their biogenesis pathway could be a way to secrete enzymes involved in lipid signalling and to generate "particulate agonists". However, this pathway seems also to be used by pathogens such as HIV. This review will consider several aspects of lipidomics studies which might help to understand the fate and role of these fascinating vesicles.