Markers of macrophage activation and axonal injury are associated with prospective memory in HIV-1 disease

Cogn Behav Neurol. 2006 Dec;19(4):217-21. doi: 10.1097/01.wnn.0000213916.10514.57.


Objective: To use clinical specimens to better understand the neuropathogenesis of prospective memory (ProM) functioning in persons with HIV-1 infection.

Background: Emergent evidence suggests that HIV-1 is associated with impaired ProM, but the underlying neuropathophysiology of this deficit is not known.

Methods: Thirty-five nondemented subjects with HIV-1 infection completed measures of both ProM (ie, memory for future intentions) and retrospective memory (RM; ie, memory for past episodes). A panel of biomarkers reflecting several possible neuropathogenic mechanisms of HIV was measured in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid, including HIV-1 RNA, total tau, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), soluble receptor for tumor necrosis factor type II, and fibroblast growth factor 1.

Results: After controlling for antiretroviral therapy and CD4 lymphocyte count, higher levels of MCP-1 in plasma, and soluble receptor for tumor necrosis factor type II and tau in cerebrospinal fluid were associated with ProM, but not RM. Markers of astrocytosis, growth factor depletion, and HIV-1 replication did not predict either ProM or RM.

Conclusions: ProM impairment in HIV-1 may be dissociable from RM, perhaps reflecting specific neuropathogenic mechanisms of macrophage activation and axonal injury.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Axons / immunology
  • Axons / pathology*
  • Biomarkers / blood
  • Biomarkers / cerebrospinal fluid
  • Chemokine CCL2 / blood
  • Chemokine CCL2 / cerebrospinal fluid
  • Etanercept
  • Female
  • Fibroblast Growth Factor 1 / blood
  • Fibroblast Growth Factor 1 / cerebrospinal fluid
  • HIV Infections / complications
  • HIV Infections / immunology*
  • HIV-1 / genetics
  • HIV-1 / immunology
  • Humans
  • Immunoglobulin G / blood
  • Immunoglobulin G / cerebrospinal fluid
  • Macrophages / immunology
  • Macrophages / metabolism*
  • Male
  • Memory / physiology*
  • Memory Disorders / complications
  • Memory Disorders / diagnosis
  • Memory Disorders / immunology*
  • Middle Aged
  • RNA, Viral / blood
  • RNA, Viral / cerebrospinal fluid
  • Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor / blood
  • Statistics, Nonparametric
  • tau Proteins / blood
  • tau Proteins / cerebrospinal fluid


  • Biomarkers
  • CCL2 protein, human
  • Chemokine CCL2
  • Immunoglobulin G
  • RNA, Viral
  • Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor
  • tau Proteins
  • Fibroblast Growth Factor 1
  • Etanercept