It was shown that Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin has the effect of allowing the passage of 125I polyvinyl-pyrrolidone and 125I human serum albumin into mouse brain. These substances did not enter the brains of normal control mice. The passage of albumin into the brains of mice poisoned with epsilon toxin was extremely rapid. When large doses of toxin (+/-4 000 MLD) were given death ensued within 2-3 min at which stage 1,5% of the injected albumin had already entered the brain. In cases where smaller doses were given and the time interval between injection and death was longer the figure was increased to 2-2 1/2% of the injected plasma albumin.