NAD+ metabolism in health and disease

Trends Biochem Sci. 2007 Jan;32(1):12-9. doi: 10.1016/j.tibs.2006.11.006. Epub 2006 Dec 11.


Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) is both a coenzyme for hydride-transfer enzymes and a substrate for NAD(+)-consuming enzymes, which include ADP-ribose transferases, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases, cADP-ribose synthases and sirtuins. Recent results establish protective roles for NAD(+) that might be applicable therapeutically to prevent neurodegenerative conditions and to fight Candida glabrata infection. In addition, the contribution that NAD(+) metabolism makes to lifespan extension in model systems indicates that therapies to boost NAD(+) might promote some of the beneficial effects of calorie restriction. Nicotinamide riboside, the recently discovered nucleoside precursor of NAD(+) in eukaryotic systems, might have advantages as a therapy to elevate NAD(+) without inhibiting sirtuins, which is associated with high-dose nicotinamide, or incurring the unpleasant side-effects of high-dose nicotinic acid.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • ADP Ribose Transferases / metabolism
  • ADP-ribosyl Cyclase / metabolism
  • Aging / physiology
  • Animals
  • Candida glabrata
  • Candidiasis / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Lipids / blood
  • NAD / biosynthesis
  • NAD / metabolism*
  • Neurodegenerative Diseases / physiopathology*
  • Niacinamide / metabolism
  • Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases / metabolism
  • Sirtuins / metabolism


  • Lipids
  • NAD
  • Niacinamide
  • ADP Ribose Transferases
  • Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases
  • ADP-ribosyl Cyclase
  • Sirtuins