The experience of the Republic of Cuba regarding epidemiological studies, integral medical care, and strategies for the prevention of chronic kidney disease is summarized in this report. Cuba has a National Program for Chronic Renal Disease, Dialysis, and Renal Transplantation. There is a national nephrology net, integrated by the Institute of Nephrology as the coordinator center, that has 47 nephrology services with a hemodialysis unit (24 of them with peritoneal dialysis unit), 9 transplantation centers, 33 organ procurement hospitals, and 5 histocompatibility laboratories. In 2004, the incidence rate in dialysis patients was 111 pmp, and the prevalence rate was 149 pmp, demonstrating an increasing mean of 17.0% and 10.0% per year, respectively. Renal transplantation rate was 16.6 pmp. The detection, registration, and follow-up of patients with chronic kidney disease (serum creatinine > or =1.5 mg/dL or glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min) by family doctors was 9,761 patients, 0.87 patients per 1,000 inhabitants. In the 1980s, three population-based screening studies were performed to define the burden of chronic renal failure in different regions of Cuba. The prevalence rate was 1.1, 3.3, and 3.5 per 1,000 inhabitants, respectively. At present, another three population-based screening studies are ongoing in order to detect the chronic kidney disease in earliest stages. The continuing medical education activities have been very useful in raising the awareness of medical doctors and the basic health staff about the threats posed by and the strategies to prevent, diagnose, and treat chronic kidney disease.