Are orthoptic exercises an effective treatment for convergence and fusion deficiencies?

Strabismus. 2006 Dec;14(4):183-9. doi: 10.1080/09273970601026185.


Purpose: To investigate whether orthoptic exercises are an effective way to influence the near point of convergence, fusion range and asthenopic symptoms.

Methods: Seventy-eight patients met the inclusion criteria of visual acuity 6/9 or better, no history of orthoptic treatment, squint surgery or Meares Irlen syndrome/dyslexia. Information was collected from case records related to diagnosis, near point of convergence, fusion range, prism and cover test measurements and symptoms. Type, duration and frequency of exercises were also recorded. Non-parametric statistics were applied.

Results: Patients ranged in age from 5 to 73 years (mean 11.9). Females outnumbered males (46:32). The diagnoses were: decompensating heterophoria (n = 50) or convergence insufficiency (n = 28: primary 27; secondary 1). Exophoria was more common (n = 65), than esophoria (n = 11) or orthophoria (n = 1). Treatments were aimed at improving near point of convergence and/or reduced fusional reserves. The mean treatment period was 8.2 months. Reduced near point of convergence normalized following treatment in 47/55 cases, and mean near point of convergence improved from 16.6 to 8.4 cm (p = 0.0001). Fusional reserves normalized in 29/50. Fusional convergence improved significantly for those with exodeviation (p > 0.0006). Asthenopic symptoms improved in 65 patients. A reduction in deviation of 5 pd or more occurred in 20 patients.

Conclusions: Orthoptic exercises are an effective means of reducing symptoms in patients with convergence insufficiency and decompensating exophoria, and appear to target the proximal and fusional components of convergence. Their role in esophoria is unclear and needs further study.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Asthenopia / therapy*
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Convergence, Ocular
  • Exercise Therapy / methods*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Ocular Motility Disorders / therapy*
  • Orthoptics / methods*
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Strabismus / therapy*
  • Vision Disparity*
  • Vision, Binocular