Measuring Proliferation in Breast Cancer: Practicalities and Applications

Breast Cancer Res. 2006;8(6):216. doi: 10.1186/bcr1618.

Abstract

Various methods are available for the measurement of proliferation rates in tumours, including mitotic counts, estimation of the fraction of cells in S-phase of the cell cycle and immunohistochemistry of proliferation-associated antigens. The evidence, advantages and disadvantages for each of these methods along with other novel approaches is reviewed in relation to breast cancer. The potential clinical applications of proliferative indices are discussed, including their use as prognostic indicators and predictors of response to systemic therapy.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Antigens, Nuclear
  • Breast Neoplasms / physiopathology*
  • Cell Proliferation*
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinases
  • Cyclins
  • DNA Topoisomerases, Type II
  • Deuterium Oxide
  • Disease Progression
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Ki-67 Antigen
  • Mitotic Index
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Positron-Emission Tomography
  • Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen
  • S Phase
  • Thymidine Kinase
  • Tissue Array Analysis

Substances

  • Antigens, Nuclear
  • Cyclins
  • Ki-67 Antigen
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen
  • nucleolar organizer region associated proteins
  • Thymidine Kinase
  • thymidine kinase 1
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinases
  • DNA Topoisomerases, Type II
  • Deuterium Oxide